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The earth is made up of materials that are electrically conductive. A fault current will flow to 'earth' through the live conductor, provided it is earthed. This is to prevent a potentially live conductor from rising above the safe level. All exposed metal parts of an electrical installation or electrical appliance must be earthed. An earthing system defines the electrical potential of the conductors relative to that of the Earth's conductive surface.


Electricity is the most common form of energy that is used by man in his premises. It is beneficial to us as a source of lighting and power. Electricity could be dangerous through misuse and handling as it could cause harm to the consumer. If the electricity passes through a human body, the person will suffer electric shock and burns. It could also cost damage to properties. The main causes of electrical accidents are:

  • Lack of maintenance
  • Failure or lack of earthing
  • Unsafe and carelessness operating procedures
  • Electrical wiring and equipment's physical form could have been damaged
  • Incorrectly connected wires and other mistakes are usually caused by ignorance or negligence


There are two possible ways one can get electric shock. They are direct contact and indirect contact. The severity of an electric shock is determined by the amount of current flowing through the body. The effects of the electric shock can be very dangerous. It may even prove fatal. Here are the results:

  • 1mA - 2mA
    No harmful effects
  • 5mA - 10mA
    Painful and burning sensation
  • 10mA - 15mA
    Muscular contraction
  • 20mA - 30mA
    Impairs breathing or having breathing difficulties
  • 40mA/above
    Ventricular fibrillation or death